Another extremely obvious example of biblical male bias is the almost exclusive listings and occurrences of male births. In Genesis 4, Eve gives birth to three sons, Cain, Able, and Seth; Genesis 5, continues with a long list of male descendants from Adam, ending with Noah begetting sons and daughters. The only children of Noah that are named are his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (whose wives remain nameless), and they were Noah’s only children to enter the Ark with him. The next stop in our male journey is the listing of the sons of Shem, Ham and Japheth in Genesis 10; the list mentions five sons of Japheth, four sons of Ham, and five sons of Shem, it then goes on to list their grandsons. So far in the story there is a plethora of male offspring being listed, but no females – which begs the question – where did Noah’s great grandsons find wives in a world where all life had just been destroyed by the Flood?

 

Now, the omission of female offspring is understandable, if one views biblical history as being written by males, but not so realistic given the God inspired view most Christians hold to. The Bible tells us that God created male and female to be fruitful and multiply, and we know that females carry half of the DNA, so if Scripture is truly god inspired why does it only focus on the birth of sons leaving half the population excluded? The mother of Jesus was Mary, yet her genealogy in not listed because according to Jewish law only the father’s bloodline counted.  That is why Joseph who was only the stepfather of Jesus and not of his true bloodline gets mentioned in both Matthew and Luke. Since Jesus had no earthly father how are we to know his true lineage?

 

Continuing on with the biblical record of male births, the next in line is Terah, the father of Abraham who is in the lineage of Noah’s son, Shem. Terah had three sons, Abram, Nahor, and Lot. Abraham married Sarah who was barren, until God blessed her with a son called Isaac at ninety years of age. Abraham also had another son by his maid-servant Hagar. Abrahams only son by Sarah, Isaac marries Rebecca who is barren until midlife when God blesses her with twin sons, Jacob, and Esau. Of the two sons of Isaac, Jacob ends up fathering twelve sons and one daughter from his two wives and two concubines. The one daughter, Dinah, born of Leah is unique; it is the one and only time in the entire Bible where the birth of a named daughter is recorded.

 

Gen. 30:21 And afterwards she bare a daughter, and called her name Dinah.

 

So far in the biblical narrative there has been an abundance of male offspring begotten, which is understandable given the importance of patriarchy in the genealogical record, the part that is unbelievable is that all the dominant figures in the lineage of Adam always happen to have sons, how convenient is that given it is only the male offspring that is of any importance. If one views the Bible from the standpoint of being an historical document composed by male authors, the bias in favor of the male is expected; it is only when Scripture is held to be the inspired word of god that its incredulity becomes apparent. The simple laws of reproduction  tells us that the chances of giving birth to male offspring is equal to that of female offspring, consequently the Bible reveals it is neither neutral nor objective, but has a male agenda which is seen throughout its pages by defining from its inception the superior status of male offspring. After critiquing the evidence of males being disproportionally represented and favored, one has no choice but to conclude that either the Bible was written by men who believed women to be inferior and not worthy of mention, or it was inspired by a misogynistic god who created the female with an inherent lesser value than the male. Speaking from the perspective of a woman who knows her intellect to be equivalent to that of a man, I choose to believe the Bible was written by men who lived in a culture of male dominance and hegemony; hence the god they created would reflect their male mindset.

 

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